THE CERM PROJECT
This year, COP24 will take place from 3rd – 14th December 2018, in Katowice Poland. COP24 is the abbreviated title for the 24th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The main goals of COP24 will be to:
1) coordinate a plan that ensures the effective implementation of the Paris Agreement and
2) to facilitate discussions to support the implementation of national commitments.
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
Trinidad and Tobago has ratified the Paris Agreement and has declared its the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to reduce overall emissions in the power generation, transportation and industrial sectors by 103 million tonnes of equivalent CO2 emissions. Trinidad and Tobago has also committed to reducing public transport emissions by an equivalent of 1.7 million tonnes by 2030.
CARIBBEAN SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES (SIDS)
All CARICOM countries are classified part of the SIDS. Each of these countries has their own intended nationally determined contribution, including a commitment to renewable sources of energy for electricity and transportation. While CARICOM SIDS are not the most significant contributors to global carbon dioxide emissions, they are more likely to experience the negative effects of climate change. The location and economic states of these SIDS make them vulnerable to climate-related natural disasters and coastal threats associated with sea-level rise (SLR).
The Paris Agreement calls for climate neutrality, which is a sustainable approach to climate change that simultaneously allows for reduced emissions and preservation of national economies. A climate policy that calls for climate neutrality instead of total decarbonisation allows countries whose economies rely heavily on industrial processes that produce greenhouse gases to still function, as long as there are alternative means of reducing CO2 emissions.
Poland, one third of which is occupied by forests, is on its way to achieving a balance between carbon dioxide emissions and sequestration by soils and forests. Their project, Forest Carbon Farms, makes use of previous scientific research that planting specific tree species can enhance the CO2 absorption capacity of forests. At COP24, Poland will present their progress towards climate neutrality as well as propose new research on the economic impacts of CO2 sequestration by forests as it pertains to the sustainable development of the world.
The climate change goal of the Paris Agreement – to keep global temperature rise below 1.5 degrees Celsius – cannot be accomplished by reducing carbon emissions alone. Even if the total greenhouse gas emissions were reduced to zero in the future, the carbon already present in the atmosphere would continue to influence rising global temperatures. In order to achieve carbon neutrality, mechanisms for carbon capture and storage need to be implemented.
Carbon neutrality is defined as zero net release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Industries and organizations can achieve this by balancing the amount of carbon dioxide emitted with an equivalent amount sequestered either through CCS projects, carbon offsetting or by purchasing carbon credits if available. Carbon offsetting involves the reduction of emissions through external projects such as funding for environmental activities that will remove or prevent CO2 emissions, like tree planting initiatives.
Steps to Carbon Neutrality
Here are some steps that a company or organization can take to progress towards carbon neutrality.
A carbon credit is a certificate or permit which allows a country or organization to produce a set amount (usually 1 tonne) of carbon dioxide emissions (or equivalent mass of another greenhouse gas) which can be traded if the full allowance is not used. Sound confusing? Let's break it down.
Each participating country of the Kyoto Protocol was assigned a quota for greenhouse gas emissions. This amount is broken down into individual units, with each unit allowing the emission of 1 metric tonne of carbon dioxide or equivalent greenhouse gas. Within each country, these units were distributed among operators, establishing a quota or cap for each organization. Operators with unused units would be allowed to sell them, as carbon credits, to organizations that exceeded their carbon emissions quota. If an Operator has used up all their carbon credits they can buy additional credits to avoid being fined for their carbon emissions. This is a cap-and-trade scheme.
The implementation of carbon credits has effectively put a price on greenhouse gas emissions. The market price of carbon credits varies with the balance of supply and demand. Operators would need to include the purchase of carbon credits as part of their internal cost. In order to reduce this cost and ensure that additional credits are not needed, organizations would be required to modify their processes to produce less carbon dioxide or find alternative means to keep their greenhouse gas emissions to a minimum.
The API Gravity scale measures the density of petroleum liquids relative to water. The greater the API gravity, the less dense the liquid.
An important part of any successful project is a clear outline of the steps necessary to achieve the main objective. This can sometimes be represented by a logical framework, also known as a logframe matrix. An example of a logical framework template is given below.
A logical framework matrix can be tailored to suit the specific project. When creating a logframe matrix, it is important to have a clear outline of the outcomes needed to achieve the overall project goal (see our previous post on Road Maps). This format is useful because it gives a sense of the hierarchy of project objectives, and is a more detailed plan than a road map.
The first column (Summary) provides a brief description of each level of the project. When filling in the logframe matrix, it is a good idea to start here. Another very important section is the "Assumptions" column. This represents the external factors that will affect the project. If these assumptions do not hold true, then they are a risk as the project cannot continue on to the next level.
The indicators and verification columns are ways to gauge whether or not the steps outlined in the summary for each project level have been achieved.
This logical framework template is read from the last row to the top (following the arrows), which can be confusing at times. The logframe matrix can be customized so that it is read top down, as long as the logic of the columns holds true.
A logical framework is a useful planning management tool that should be developed no matter the size of the project!
In this week's issue of the CERM Knowledge Series, we take a look at the problem of global carbon dioxide emissions.
One-Dimensional Schematic Diagram of a Miscible CO2-EOR Process
This week's installment of the CERM Knowledge Series highlights some important terms that are used frequently when talking about enhanced oil recovery and The CERM Project.
Merriam Webster defines a road map as "a detailed plan to guide progress to a goal." A huge part of the CERM Project is developing a road map for the implementation of carbon dioxide EOR in Trinidad and Tobago. This road map is a strategic plan to achieve the large scale application of carbon dioxide as an enhanced oil recovery process.
The image above is an illustration of a typical road map for a CO2EOR project. The steps outlined here represent the intermediate goals and practical steps on the way to accomplishing the main objective.
The second installment of the CERM Knowledge Series is here! This week we're talking about different methods of Enhanced Oil Recovery.
Click the infographic below to learn more and don't forget to share the knowledge!
The CERM Project is a collaboration between academic institutions, The University of the West Indies (UWI) and The University of Trinidad & Tobago (UTT), and Government Energy Institutions - the Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries (MEEI), Heritage Petroleum Company Ltd and the National Gas Company (NGC) to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the energy sector